Bismuth

Source of the photo: 
http://bigbluemarblebooks.blogspot.com/2009/11/quote-theodore-gray.html
Author of the description: 
Gruiz Katalin
Bismuth

Atomic number

83

Atomic mass

208.9804 g.mol -1

Electronegativity

1.9

Density

9.80 g.cm-3 at 20°C

Melting point

271 °C

Boiling point

1420 °C

Vanderwaals radius

0.152 nm

Ionic radius

0.074 nm (+5) ; 0,120 nm (+3)

Isotopes

14

Electronic shell

[ Xe ] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3

Energy of first ionisation

703 kJ.mol -1

Energy of second ionisation

1610 kJ.mol -1

Energy of third ionisation

2466 kJ.mol -1

Energy of fourth ionisation

4362,3 kJ.mol -1

Energy of fifth ionisation

5394 kJ.mol -1

Standard potential

0.32 V ( Bi3+/ Bi )

Discovered by

The ancients

 

Bismuth is a white, crystalline, brittle metal with a pinkish tinge. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals, and the thermal conductivity is lower than any metal except mercury. It has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall effect of any metal (that is, the greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field). Bismuth is stable to oxygen and water but dissolves in concentrated nitric air. All bismuth salts form insoluble compounds when put into water.

Applications

Bismuth metal is used in the manufacture of low melting solders and fusible alloys as well as low toxicity bird shot and fishing sinkers. Certain bismuth compounds are also manufactured and used as pharmaceuticals. Industry makes use of bismuth compounds as catalysts in manifacturing acrylonitrile, the starting material for synthetic fibers and rubbers. Bismuth is sometimes used in the production of shot and shotguns.