Enilconazole = imazalil, fungicide

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Imazalil.svg
Author of the description: 
GK
Imazalil

Enilconazole (synonyms imazalil, chloramizole) is a fungicide widely used in agriculture, particularly in the growing of citrus fruits. Trade names include Freshgard, Fungaflor, and Nuzone.

Enilconazole is also used in veterinary medicine as a topical antimycotic.

  • CAS number 35554-44-0 Yes
  • PubChem 37175
  • ChemSpider 34116 Yes
  • UNII 6K0NOF3XQ6 Yes
  • KEGG D03997 Yes
  • ChEMBL CHEMBL356918 Yes
  • ATCvet code QD01AC90
  • Jmol-3D images Image 1

Properties

  • Molecular formula C14H14Cl2N2O
  • Molar mass 297.18 g mol−1
  • Appearance Slightly yellow to brown solidified oil[1]
  • Density 1.23 g/mL
  • Melting point 50 °C, 323 K, 122 °F ([1])
  • Boiling point 347 °C, 620 K, 657 °F ([2])
  • Solubility in water 1400 mg/L (20 °C)[1]

Hazard data

  • Flash point 181 °C (358 °F)[2]
  • LD50 227 mg/kg (oral rat)
  • 4200 mg/kg (dermal, rabbit)
  • 16 mg/l/4 h (inhalation, rat)

Toxicity

Imazalil is classified as “Likely to be carcinogenic in humans,” according to EPA’s July 1999 Draft Guidelines for Carcinogenic Assessment. Carcinogenicity studies in rodents indicate imazalil is carcinogenic to male Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats based on a significant increase in liver adenomas and combined adenomas/carcinomas. Based on current science policy and absent information supporting a mode of action in test animals, EPA quantified the human cancer risk by a linear low-dose (Q1*) extrapolation. The most potent unit risk Q1 (mg/kg/day)-1 for imazalil based on male mouse liver adenoma and/or carcinoma combined tumor rates is 6.1 x 10-2 (mg/kg/day)-1 in human equivalents. In rats, there was also an increased incidence of combined thyroid follicular cell adenomas/carcinomas. In addition, imazalil is placed in Category II, II, and IV for oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity respectively. It is highly irritating to the eye (Category I), but is not a skin irritant (Category IV) or a dermal sensitizer.

Európában 2013-ban került napirendre osztályozása és címkézése.

Environmental Fate

Environmental assessment Imazalil is moderately water soluble, very stable to hydrolysis, photo degrades relatively rapidly, degrades very slowly in soil under aerobic conditions, is immobile in soils, is not expected to volatilize, and has a high octanol water partition coefficient.

Ecological Risks

Based on the above environmental fate properties, and with consideration of the product formulations, the application methods, and the application rates, EPA believes that the immobile parent compound is not likely to be found in significant concentrations in the environment. Although persistent in aerobic soil, the seed treatment with a low application rate (0.01 lbs. a.i./A) is the only use that comes in contact with soil.

Risks to Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms

Imazalil does not exceed acute or chronic levels of concern (LOCs) for freshwater fish, invertebrate, avian, and mammalian species due to extremely low exposure, which is attributable to the low application rate (0.01 lbs. a.i./A) and the seed treatment end-use (only 1% residue was left on soil surfaces). Imazalil is practically non-toxic to seed eating avian and mammalian species. In addition to the seed treatment, all other uses occur within contained areas or structures and no exposure is expected.

Imazalil does not exceed levels of concern for endangered species. The acute risk quotients (RQs) for freshwater fish (0.00005), invertebrate (0.00002), avian (0.00003), and mammal species (0.0002) are all below the endangered species LOC. Because of the extremely low exposure and relatively low toxicity to freshwater organisms, all acute and chronic toxicity testing has been waived.

 

Source of description: 

R.E.D. Facts: Imazalil. Environmental Protection Agency. February 2005.

http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/factsheets/2325fact.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enilconazole